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Gloves Glossary
Sportswear Glossary
Gloves Anatomy
Sportswear Anatomy
Size Chart
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Gloves Glossary
 
Belly Leather: That part of the hide below the belly line.

Bias Tape: A textile or plasticized material around the edge of the cuff to prevent unraveling of a textile cuff or to finish a leather cuff.

Butt: That part of the hide or skin covering the rump or hind part of the animal.

Chain Stitch: The looper thread is chained around top thread. In case of a broken thread, this type of stitch will unravel easier than a lock stitch. (Fed. std. no.751a, type 401)

Clicking: Clicking is cutting the leather with a die for a certain part of the glove (For example, a general safety cuff work glove needs 10 dies, per pair, per size).

Clute Cut: One piece palm, no finger base seam, however seams along the fingers in the inside. Excellent for very flexible gloves only. Not recommended for heavy gloves.

Color Code: See "sizing"

Cuff: A cuff is a material extending beyond the palm of the hand to give extra protection of the wrist, forearm, etc. See Knit wrist, Safety Cuff, Gauntlet.

Denier: Nylon and silk weight measure. Measure of fineness of thread; in 100-denier yarn (=thread) 9,000 yards weighs 100 grams.

Die: A die is a piece of metal shaped in the form of a palm, back, etc. to be clicked out. The metal die is sharp on one or both sides.

DOP: A plasticizer used in plastic or vinyl (PVC - Poly Vinyl Chloride) products.


Embossed Leather: Leather which has been ornamented with a geometrical or fancy design by heavy pressure in a machine.

Fat Liquor: An emulsion of oils or greases in water, usually with an emulsifying agent, used to lubricate the fibers of leather.

Fiber: A fiber is the smallest visible piece of tanned skin (smallest visible by the eye). The skin is no more than thousands fibers, three dimensional, woven together, in the grain almost vertical (80%-85%), in the lowest part of the skin almost horizontal (30%). The degrees of the fiber play a very important role in the wear and tear resistance.

Fourchette: See Gusset

Full Fashion: Common term used in cotton or nylon gloves to express gussets in between the fingers like a dress glove.

Gauntlet: A gauntlet is a long cuff for protection of the forearm. Usually 4.5-5 inches long.

Grain: The external covering of the hide. That part of the hide that contains the hair of the animal. Smooth finish with holes still visible. (Grain also known as Epidermis)

Full Grain: Having the original grain surface of the skin.

Corrected Grain: Corrected grain is grain leather that has had an abrasive used on the finish for more uniform appearance. (to hide scratches etc.). Also used to give a soft feeling on grain, then called buffed, snuffed or fluffed.

Gunn Cut: A gunn cut gloves has a finger base seam but the seams between the fingers are on the back of the glove for better wear and comfort especially for heavier gloves.

Gusset: Piece of material sewn between the fingers very often used in dress gloves. Also called side walls or fourchettes.

Hem: A finished edge of the cuff with a textile, plasticized material or leather. Also "self hemmed" is possible which means, that the material is folded around. Variation: rolled hem,

Knit Wrist: A knit wrist is a stretch knitted material, mostly from cotton, to protect the wrist. Also excellent protection against particles falling into the glove. Length is usually 2 - 2.5 inch.

Lock Stitch: Most common used stitch in gloves. (Fed. std. no.751a type 301)

Pattern: The design of the glove. Most common patterns are Gunn cut and Clute cut.


Mitt: A mitt is a glove with the four fingers combined.

                One finger mitt: A glove with the index finger and thumb in separate compartments, the rest is combined. Also known as a three (3) finger glove.

Ounce: Leather: A term used to indicate weight or substance of certain kinds of leather. In theory, it is based upon the assumption that one square foot of leather will weigh a certain number of ounces and will uniformly be of certain thickness; hence, a three-ounce leather will theoretically would be one square foot of leather weighing three ounces. An ounce is equivalent in thickness to 1/64th". See also "thickness"

Safety Cuff: A cuff with a slit opening on the side enabling the wearer to throw the glove off.

Side Wall: see gusset.

Sizing:

 
XXS XS S M L XL XXL
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
 
To measure....Measure around largest part of hand over knuckles while making a fist, excluding thumb (the measurement is the size).

Often a color code is used for drivers gloves having a bias tape
The glove trade color codes are:
 
XS 7 YELLOW
S 8 RED
M 9 GREEN
L 10 BROWN
XL 11 BLUE
XXL 12 BLACK
 
Shoulder: The fore part of the hide, cut off at right angles to the back bone line at the break of the fore flank, with the belly cut off and the head cut off behind the horn holes.

Side: A side is half a hide cut along the back bone line with the tail not more than 6" long.

Split: A term used to describe the portion of hide or skin, split into two or more thick nesses, other then the grain or hair side. Splits are usually named according to their sequence of production. (Split also known as Dermis)

Spready hide: A hide of large area proportion to the weight (dairy cattle).

Stitching: See Chain stitch and Lock stitch.

Tear Resistance: In leather, tear resistance is important. You may have a beautiful looking piece of leather but it may not have any tear resistance. Leather has its tear resistance in the split portion of the hide due to the three dimensional woven interlocking fibers. Also very important in the tear resistance is the flesh side (bottom of skin where the leather meets the meat). Other factors are also playing an important role such as how well tanned the leather is (not too loose), type of animal, part of hide (belly, shoulder, side), etc. Grain leather has a bad tear resistance due to the vertical fibre structure.

Thickness:
Leather: The thickness in leather is expressed in ounce (oz.) or an equivalent letter designation.

 
Letter designations Weight Oz
LL 2 - 2.5
L 2.5 - 3
LM 3 - 3.5
M 3.5 - 4
HM 4 - 4.5
H 4.5 - 5
HH 5 - 5.5
HHH 5.5 - 6
 
Add a "P" in front of letter designation for "Plump". In this case you add .25 oz to the weight range.
            Cotton: The thickness of cotton gloves is given in ounces. Once cotton ounce is the weight of one square foot of this material.

Thickness continued:...
            Nylon: The thickness of nylon gloves is given in "Denier". Example: 40 Denier. See Denier

            Rubber: The thickness of rubber or latex is given in mil. One mil is one thousands of one inch.

Thread: Thread can be divided in 2 types: Cotton and Synthetic
The synthetic threads are usually stronger but in certain applications (like welding gloves) cotton is preferred because a synthetic thread may melt because of the heat. In welding gloves Kevlar might be used as well. Kevlar is very strong (pound for pound, Kevlar is 5 times stronger than steel.)

            Thread size: Cotton: the size is given as "ticket size". In cotton 1 count equals 840 yards. The second number after the count is the number of plies, which has to be divided by the result of the count X 840. So a 12/4 cotton thread equals 840 multiplied by 12 divided by 4 (840 X 12 : 4) = 2520 yards per pound. As a result of this we can say "the higher the count the thinner the thread with cotton".

            Synthetic: The size is given as "ticket size". In synthetic thread the ticket size represents 1/10 of a denier (1 denier = 4,446,453 yards/lbs). To determine the yield, you have to multiply the ticket size with 10 and divide 4,446,453 by the result of that. Example: ticket size "69". 69 X 10 = 690 denier. 4,446,453 : 690 = 4833 yards per lbs. As a result, the higher the ticket size in synthetic thread the thicker the thread.

Top Grain: The grain side of a hide from which nothing except the hair and associated epidermis have been removed by reduction to a specific thickness by shaving, splitting or other means.

TR: TR stands for Tannery Run. This means that the leather is not selected into different grades like A, B and C grade but "as is".

Wear resistance: The ability to wear. Due to the almost (80-85 degrees) vertical fiber in grain leather, grain will outwear cow split many times. Also see Tear resistance.

Welt: A thin piece of leather sewn in the seam line to strengthen the seam, typically sewn in the finger base seam and thumb crotch of the glove.

 
 
Leather Types
 
Buckskin: Leather from deer and elk skins; used for shoes, gloves and clothing. Only the outer cut of the skin from which the surface grain has been removed may be correctly defined as "genuine buckskin". Leather finished from the split or under cut of deerskin must be described as "split buckskin".

Buffalo: Buffalo leather is made from the hides of domesticated water buffalo of the Far East, not the American bison.

Cabretta: Skin of Brazilian hair sheep used principally for glove leathers.

Calf Leather: Leather made from the skins of young cattle from a few days up to a few months old, the skins weighing up to 15 lbs. Calf leather is finer grained, lighter in weight and more supple than cowhide.

Cape (skin or leather): Skin of South African hair sheep. Fine grained leather, superior to wool sheep for gloves. Loosely applied to all hair sheep.

Chamois: A soft pliable absorbent oil tanned leather which is recognized in this country and abroad as being made from sheepskin, from which the outer or grain side has been split prior to tanning, known technically as a flesher.

Cowhide: Term specifically applied to leather made from hides of cows, although the term is sometimes loosely used to designate any leather tanned from hides of animals of the bovine species.

Deerskin: In glove leather, a deerskin tanned and finished with the grain surface intact.

Morocco Leather: Vegetable-tanned fancy goatskin leather having a distinctive pebbled grain.

Pigskin: Leather made form the skin of pigs or hogs.

Rawhide: Cattle hide that has been de haired, limed, often stuffed with oil or grease and has sometimes undergone other preparation, but has not been tanned. It is used principally for mechanical purposes, such as belt lacings, shoe laces, snow shoes, etc.

 
 Type of Hide Weight Epidermis Dermis
 CALF   1 2 - 3
 Mature Cow 55 Lbs 1 5 - 6
 Mature Cow (Asia) 33 Lbs. 1 6 - 7
 Mature Wool Sheep   1 0.5
 Mature Hair Sheep   1 1 - 1.5
 Mature Goat   1 1.25 - 1.5
 Mature Pig   1 8 - 10
    (Grain) (Split)
 
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